17 Mar 2017


Endocrine glands and hormones:

1.  Hypothalamus


The Hypothalamus is a small portion of the Brain just below the thalamus. It is the neural control centre for all endocrine systems. Hormones released by the hypothalamus are,


            1.      Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

            2.      Dopamine

            3.      Growth hormone-releasing hormone

            4.      Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone

            5.      Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

            6.      Corticotropin-releasing hormone

            7.      Vasopressin


Action and Function:


           1.      Thyrotropin-releasing hormone = Anterior pituitary gland (Thyroid-stimulating hormone) = Thyroid gland (T3 and T4) = Function (Growth and development)


           2.      Dopamine = Neurotransmitter = Lack of dopamine leads to Parkinson’s disease


           3.      Growth hormone-releasing hormone = Anterior pituitary gland = Growth hormone


           4.      Somatostatin (Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone) = Anterior pituitary gland = Inhibit Growth hormone & inhibit Thyroid-stimulating hormone


           5.      Gonadotropin-releasing hormone = Anterior pituitary gland = Gonadotropin (Follicle-stimulating hormone & luteinizing hormone).  


           6.      Corticotropin-releasing hormone = Anterior pituitary gland = Adrenocorticotropic hormone = Adrenal gland (Cortisol) Function (Stress response)


           7.      Vasopressin (Antidiuretic hormone) – Function (Water retention and constrict blood vessels).


    2.  Pineal Gland


     The pineal gland (pineal body) is a small gland located in the centre of the brain. Produce Melatonin (Regulates sleep) it is also an antioxidant.


    3.  Pituitary Gland


The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain.  Hormones released by the pituitary gland are,


            1.      Thyroid-stimulating hormone

            2.      Adrenocorticotropic hormone

            3.      Gonadotropin (follicle-stimulating hormone & luteinizing hormone)

            4.      Growth hormone

            5.      Prolactin (Stimulate milk synthesis)

            6.      Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (Stimulate melanin synthesis)

            7.      Oxytocin (Uterine contraction during delivery)

            8.      Vasopressin


       4.  Thyroid Gland


The thyroid gland is located in the neck just below Adam’s apple. It secretes thyroid hormone (T3 and T4)


       5.  Parathyroid


Parathyroid glands are totally four small glands located in the neck just behind the thyroid gland, it secrets parathyroid hormone that maintains the calcium and phosphate level.



       6.  Pancreas


The pancreas is a part of the digestive organ; it is located in the abdomen cavity behind the stomach. It secrets the most important hormone called Insulin and also the Pancreatic juice that assists digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.



       7.  Adrenal Gland


Adrenal glands are located just above the kidneys. It secretes Adrenaline, steroid hormone (aldosterone) and Cortisol

       8.  Testes


The testes are the male gonad, the primary function is the production of sperm and to produce testosterone.


      9.  Ovary


The ovary is the female gland, the primary function is the production of egg cells (Ovum), It secrets progesterone & estrogen hormone important for the regulation of ovulation and menstruation.