CPC

1 Sept 2017

Types of Bones in the Human Body


TYPES OF BONES IN THE HUMAN BODY


There are mainly five types of bones present in the human body, they are

             1.   Long,

             2.   Short,

             3.   Flat,

             4.   Irregular, and

             5.   Sesamoid.



LONG BONES


            - Mostly present in the appendicular skeletal.

            - The long bones have two ends (Epiphysis) and long shaft (Diaphysis). 

            - Outer compact bone and inner spongy (cancellous bone) contain a medullary cavity and bone marrow.



Long Bones of the Upper Extremity / Upper Limb

      

         1.  Clavicle

         2.  Humerus

         3.  Radius

         4.  Ulna

         5.  Metatarsal

         6.  Phalanges



Long bones of the Lower Extremity / Lower Limb

      

         1.  Femur

         2.  Tibia

         3.   Fibula

         4.   Metatarsal

         5.   Phalanges



LONG BONES OF THE UPPER EXTREMITY / UPPER LIMB


CLAVICLE (Collar's bone)

      

              Ø  The clavicle is the only long bone that lies horizontally, between the shoulder blade and sternum.

              Ø  Medial end, lateral end, and shaft.  

              Ø  Medial end articulate with sternum and lateral end articulate with the acromion process of the scapula.



HUMERUS


              Ø  It is located in the arm (Brachium), between shoulder and elbow joint.

              Ø  It has an upper end, lower end, and shaft.

              Ø  Upper end articulate with the glenoid cavity of the scapula and lower end articulate with radius and ulna.


Important landmarks of the humerus bone


        1.   Upper end

          Head of the humerus

          Greater and lesser tuberosity

          Anatomical neck and surgical neck

          Inter tubercular sulcus


       2.   Shaft

         Deltoid tuberosity

         Radial groove

      

      3.   Lower end

         Supracondylar ridge (Medial and Lateral)

         Epicondyle (medial and Lateral)

         Capitulum and Trochlea

         Fossa (Radial, Coronoid, and Olecranon)



RADIUS


              Ø  It is located in the forearm (anti-brachium) between elbow and wrist joint.

              Ø  It is one of the two bones present in the lateral side of the forearm

              Ø  Upper end of radius articulate with the capitulum of the humerus and lower end articulates with the carpal bone (scaphoid and lunate). 
     

        Important landmarks of the radius bone


        1.  Upper end

         Head of the radius

         Neck

         Radial tuberosity

     

        2.  Shaft

       

        3.  Lower end

         Radial styloid process – lateral aspect

         Ulnar notch – medial aspect



ULNA


              Ø  It is located in the forearm (anti-brachium) between elbow and wrist joint.

              Ø  It is one of the two bones present in the medial side of the forearm

              Ø  Upper end of ulna articulate with the trochlea of the humerus and lower end articulates with ulnar notch of the radius. 
     

     Important landmarks of the ulna bone


        1.   Upper end

         Olecranon process

         Coronoid process

         Trochlear notch

         Radial notch

         Tuberosity of ulna


        2.   Shaft


        3.   Lower end

         Head of the ulna

         Ulnar styloid process

  

METACARPAL / METACARPUS


              Ø  It is located in the hand between the wrist bones and phalanges/finger bones.

              Ø  Totally five bones present in each hand.

              Ø  Proximal base of MC bone articulate with carpals and distal head of MC articulates with proximal phalanges.
     

     Important landmarks of Metacarpal bone  


        1.  Upper end / Distal head

        2.   Shaft

        3.   Lower end / Proximal base



PHALANGES


              Ø  It is located in the fingers. Totally 14 bones, three bones (Proximal, middle and distal) at each finger except thumb which has two bones (Proximal and distal phalanges).  

              Ø  Proximal, middle and distal phalanges articulate each other at interphalangeal joints. The base of proximal phalanges articulates with the head of Metacarpus at the metacarpophalangeal joint.
     

      Important landmarks of phalanges bone


            1.      Upper end / Distal head

            2.      Shaft

            3.      Lower end / Proximal base



LONG BONES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY / LOWER LIMB


FEMUR


              Ø  It is located in the thigh region, longest bone in the human body.

              Ø  Proximally articulate with the acetabulum of the pelvis (Hip joint) and distally articulate with the upper end of Tibia (Knee joint).
      

      Important landmarks of Metacarpal bone

             1.      Upper end

                       Head of the femur

                       Fovea capitis

                       Neck of femur

                       Greater Trochanter

                       Lesser Trochanter

                       Intertrochanteric Line

                       Intertrochanteric crest


            2.      Shaft

                       Linea Aspera

            

            3.      Lower end  

                       Condyle (Lateral & Medial)

                       Epicondyle (Lateral & Medial)

                       Medial and lateral Supracondylar lines

                       Intercondylar fossa

                       Patellar surface



TIBIA


              Ø  It is located in the lower leg between Knee and Ankle joint.

              Ø  It is one of the two bones present in the medial side of the lower leg

              Ø  Upper end of Tibia articulate with the condyles of the femur and lower end articulates with Talus bone.
     

     Important landmarks of Tibia bone

     

        1.  Upper end

          Condyle (Medial and Lateral)

          Tibial plateau (Articular surface)  

          Intercondylar eminence

          Tibial tuberosity

     

        2.   Shaft / Shin

     

        3.  Lower end

          Medial malleolus

          Posterior malleolus



FIBULA


          Ø  It is located in the lower leg between Knee and Ankle joint. Long thin bone.

          Ø  It is one of the two bones present in the lateral side of the lower leg

          Ø  Upper end of Fibula articulate with the Tibia (Tibiofibular joint) and lower end articulates with the lower end of Tibia and talus at the ankle joint.
     

     Important landmarks of Fibula bone

     

        1.  Upper end

          -   Head of the fibula

     

        2.   Shaft

     

        3.  Lower end

            -  Lateral malleolus



METATARSAL


              Ø  It is located in the foot between the Tarsal bones and phalanges/toe bones.

              Ø  Totally five bones present in each foot.

              Ø  Proximal base of MT bone articulate with Tarsals and distal head of MT articulate with the base of proximal phalanges.
     

     Important landmarks of Metatarsal bone

              1. Upper end / Distal head

              2.  Shaft

              3.  Lower end / Proximal base



PHALANGES


              Ø  It is located in the toes. Totally 14 bones, three bones (Proximal, middle and distal) at each toe except big toe which has two bones (Proximal and distal phalanges).  

              Ø  Proximal, middle and distal phalanges articulate each other at interphalangeal joints. The base of proximal phalanges articulates with the head of Metatarsal at the metatarsophalangeal joint.   
     

      Important landmarks of phalanges bone

              1. Upper end / Distal head
  

             2.   Shaft
   

             3.   Lower end / Proximal base