6 Feb 2018

Male and Female reproductive system anatomy

Reproduction system usually involves internal fertilization by sexual intercourse. During this process, the male inserts his erect penis into the female's vagina and ejaculates semen, which contains sperm.


The sperm will pass through the cervix into the uterus, and then into the fallopian tubes for fertilization of the ovum (Only one sperm is required to fertilize the ovum).


Upon successful fertilization, the fertilized ovum travels out of the fallopian tube and into the uterus, where it implants in the uterine wall. This is the beginning of gestation (Pregnancy) continues for nine months, concluded with childbirth (labor).


Both males and females have the same types of organs,


      1. Gonads or sex glands


      2. Ducts or tubes to carry the sex cells and secretions


      3. Accessory organs



The female reproductive system is a series of organs primarily located inside of the body and around the pelvic region of a female.



              Fallopian Tubes




              Bartholin’s Glands   



OVARIES: Female gonads (sex glands), Small almond-shaped glands located in the pelvic cavity, attached to the uterus by ligaments. It contains follicles (Thousands of small sacs in the ovaries), each follicle contains an immature ovum When an ovum matures; the follicle enlarges and then ruptures to release the mature ovum. This process is called ovulation, once in a month.



FALLOPIAN TUBES: Two tubes, about 5 inches long, Attached with uterus lateral ends has finger-like projections called Fimbriae. Tubes serve as a passageway for ovum.


Peristalsis: The rhythmic movement of the muscle layer of the tube that helps move ovum down toward the uterus and Cilia: hair-like structures lining of tubes that keep the ovum moving toward the uterus. 



UTERUS: Hollow, muscular pear-shaped organ located behind the urinary bladder, and in front of the rectum. Uterus holds the fetus during pregnancy.


     Three parts of the uterus


                  Fundus or top section: where fallopian tubes attach


                  Body or corpus: the middle section


                  Cervix or narrow bottom: a section that attaches to the vagina



     Three layers of the uterus


            Endometrium, Myometrium and Perimetrium



VAGINA: Muscular tube that connects cervix of uterus with the outside, Passageway for menstrual flow, receives the sperm and semen from the male, Acts as the birth canal during delivery of an infant.



BARTHOLIN’S GLANDS: Two small glands located on either side of the vaginal opening, Secret mucus for lubricating during intercourse.  



VULVA: Structures that form the external female genital area. 


              Labia majora, Labia minora, Mons pubis


Approximately every 28 days, the pituitary gland releases a hormone that stimulates some of the ova to develop and grow.


One ovum is released and it passes through the fallopian tube into the uterus. Hormones produced by the ovaries prepare the uterus to receive the ovum.


The lining of the uterus called the endometrium, and unfertilized ova are shed each cycle through the process of menstruation.

If the ovum is fertilized by sperm, it attaches to the Endometrium and the fetus develops.






Parts of Male reproduction system




              Vas deferens

              Seminal vesicles

              Ejaculatory ducts

              Prostate gland

              Cowper’s gland





The function of the male reproductive system is to provide the male sperm for fertilization of the ovum.



TESTES:  Two male gonads or sex glands, Located in the scrotum (sac suspended between the thighs outside the body) where the temperature is lower for production of sperm.  Produces the male sex cell called sperm or spermatozoa


Produces male hormones


    1. The main hormone is testosterone


    2. Aids in the maturation of sperm


    3. Also is responsible for the secondary male sex characteristics such as body hair, facial hair, larger muscles and a deeper voice. 



EPIDIDYMIS: Tightly coiled tube about 20 feet long located above the testes in the scrotum receives the sperm from the testes and stores the sperm while they mature and become motile, produce fluid (Part of semen).



VAS DEFERENS / DUCTUS DEFERENS: One on each side joins with the Epididymis, extends up into an abdominal cavity, Curves behind the urinary bladder and joins with a seminal vesicle.  



SEMINAL VESICLES: Two small pouch-like tubes located behind the bladder by the junction of the vas deferens and the ejaculatory ducts. Produce the yellow fluid for 75% of semen. Provide nourishment for sperm.



EJACULATORY DUCTS: Two short tubes formed by the union of vas deferens and seminal vesicles, Carry the sperm and semen, through the prostate gland into the urethra.



PROSTATE GLAND: Located below the urinary bladder on either side of the urethra. Secrete prostate fluid (alkaline) part of semen.  Muscular tissue in the prostate contracts during ejaculation (expulsion of the semen from the body) closes urethra to prevent the passage of urine through the urethra.



URETHRA: The tube that extends from the urinary bladder through the penis to the outside of the body, Carries urine from the urinary bladder and semen from the reproductive tubes



PENIS: External male reproductive organ, Male organ of copulation or intercourse, Deposits the semen in the vagina.  



COWPER’S GLANDS / BULBOURETHRAL: Two small glands located below the prostate, Connected by small tubes to the urethra, Produces mucus that serves as a lubricant for intercourse.



1.    Penis                     - Balano  /  Pen/o
2.    Vagina                   - Colpo / Vagino
3.    Cervix                   - Cervic/o
4.    Vulva                    - Vulvo  /  Epis/o
5.    Women                 - Gyneco
6.    Male                      - Andro
7.    Uterus                   - Hystero  /   Metro/o
8.    Breast                    - Mammo / Masto
9.    Menstruation         - Meno
10.  Ovary                    - Oophoro
11.  Testis                    -  Orchio / Testo
12.  Semen                   -  Spermato
13.  Vas deferens         -  Vaso
14.  Prostate gland       -  Prostato
15.  Fallopian tube       -  Salping/o


1. BPH - Benign prostatic hyperplasia

2. CS - Cesarean section

3. D&C - Dilatation and curettage

4. ED - Emergency department; erectile dysfunction

5. FHR - Fetal heart rate

6. IUCD - Intrauterine contraceptive device

7. IUD - Intrauterine device

8. OB/GYN - Obstetrics (and) gynecology

9. PID - Pelvic inflammatory disease

10. SGA - Small for gestational age

11. TAH - Total abdominal hysterectomy

12. VBAC - Vaginal birth after cesarean

13. LMP - Last menstrual period


Test your Knowledge:

                A. Reproductive System - Anatomy Quiz

                B. Terminology Quiz