19 Sept 2020

Integument system Anatomy


Integumentary system Composed of Skin, Hair, Nails


Ø Largest organ.

Ø Thickness 0.2mm

Composed of three layers

   A.  Epidermis

   B.  Dermis

   C.  Hypodermis

The skin’s colour is created by special cells called melanocytes, which produce the pigment melanin.

    - Melanocytes are located in the epidermis.


Is the outermost layer of skin provides a waterproof barrier and creates our skin tone.

A barrier to infection from environmental pathogens.

Epidermis further divided into 5 layers:

  Stratum corneum

  Stratum lucidum

  Stratum granulosum

  Stratum spinosum

  Stratum basale


Beneath the epidermis, contains tough connective tissue, consist of

v Hair follicles

v Sweat glands

v Blood vessels

v Nerve endings

The deeper subcutaneous tissue (Hypodermis)

  Is made of fat and connective tissue.

  It regulates body temperature, acts as an insulator.

Sebaceous (oil) glands:

Secrete the oily, waxy substance called sebum,

Ø   Combination of cholesterol, proteins, fats & salts

Ø   Keeps hair and skin soft & pliable

Ø   Inhibits growth of bacteria & fungi

Ø   Sebum waterproofs and lubricates the skin

Sweat glands:

A small, coiled, tubular gland that produce sweat

Three types of sweat glands

                A.    Eccrine

                B.    Apocrine

                C.     Apoeccrine

Arrector pili muscles:  

Connected to each hair follicle of skin, helps the hair to erect (Goosebumps).

The function of Skin:

ü Physical protection

ü Regulation of body temperature

ü Excretion

ü Nutrition (synthesis of Vitamin D)

ü Sensation

ü Immune defence


Nail is a horn-like keratinous plate at the tip of the fingers and toes, made up of keratin.

Consist of

            A.    Nail plate

            B.    Nail fold

            C.     Nail bed

            D.    Cuticle

            E.     Lunula



Hair is made up of Keratin.

Consist of

        1. Follicle and

        2. Hair shaft


Test Your Knowledge:

        A. Integument System Anatomy Quiz